Prinsip Kerja Compressor

prinsip kerja compressor

prinsip kerja compressorCompressor secara sederhana bisa diartikan sebagai alat atau mesin yang digunakan untuk memampatkan (menekan) udara atau gas. Pada kehidupan sehari-hari Anda mungkin sering berhubungan dengan compressor seperti hal nya ketika Anda ingin memompa ban motor atau mobil Anda, hanya saja saja dalam kehidupan sehari-hari biasanya disebut dengan istilah pompa.

Fungsi compressor adalah untuk meningkatkan energi suatu compressible fluid dengan memberikan tekanan yang tinggi atau kecepatan yang tinggi atau juga ketinggian yang tinggi kepada fluida tersebut sesuai dengan hukum bernoulli. Dengan tekanan atau kecepatan yang tinggi, maka kita bisa menggunakan energi ini untuk menggerakkan sebuah benda, contoh nya: pada mesin-mesin pneumatik, kulkas, AC (Air Conditioner) dan sebagainya. Selain itu, compressor juga bisa digunakan untuk menghisap udara atau gas yang bertekanan lebih rendah dari tekanan atmosfir yang biasa disebut dengan compressor vacuum

Penggunaan compressor sangatlah penting di dunia industri, baik sebagai penghasil udara bertekanan atau sebagai satu kesatuan dari mesin-mesin. Compressor banyak dipakai untuk mesin pneumatik, sedangkan yang menjadi satu kesatuan dengan mesin adalah turbin gas, mesin pendingin dan lainnya. 

Dengan mengambil contoh compressor sederhana, yaitu pompa ban sepeda atau mobil. Jika piston compressor ditarik naik ke atas maka tekanan silinder bagian bawah akan turun sampai di bawah tekanan atmosfer sehingga udara luar akan masuk melalui celah katup hisap. Setelah itu, udara masuk ke dalam pompa kemudian piston turun ke bawah untuk memampatkan udara tersebut sehingga volume nya menjadi kecil atau udara tersebut mengalir ke tempat yang tekanan nya lebih rendah.

prinsip kerja compressor

Jika Anda menghubungkan outlet valve dengan sebuah ban maka tekanan di dalam ban Anda akan terus meningkat hingga mencapai tekanan yang Anda inginkan. Jadi jelas dari contoh tersebut, proses pemampatan terjadi karena perubahan volume pada udara yang menjadi lebih kecil dari kondisi awal.

Jenis-jenis compressor

Compressor terdiri dari berbagai jenis sesuai dengan kebutuhan yang berbeda-beda dari setiap pengguna. Masing-masing jenis compressor mungkin berbeda dalam metode pendinginan, tahap kompresi, pelumasan, atau sumber energi dari compressor itu sendiri . Berikut di bawah ini adalah dua jenis utama dari compressor :

  • Positive displacement compressor

Positive displacement compressor memindahkan gas atau udara menggunakan energi tekanan yang mengurangi volume udara atau gas, sehingga tekanan gas meningkat. Positive displacement compressor ini juga dibagi lagi menjadi dua, yaitu reciprocating compressor dan rotary (vane dan screw) compressor. Pada reciprocating compressor, ada perpindahan piston di dalam silinder compressor dan juga jenis nya ada tipe low speed dan high speed compressor. Kelebihan dari reciprocating compressor ini memiliki high fuel efficiency dan long operating life, hanya saja dari sisi maintenance membutuhkan high cost jika dibandingkan dengan compressor centrifugal. Dan sekarang bagaimana rotary (vane dan screw) compressor? vane dan screw compressor ini juga masih menggunakan energi tekanan, hanya saja compressor jenis ini cocok beroperasi mengeluarkan tekanan discharge yang lebih rendah dari pada reciprocating compressor, tetapi pressure yang dikeluarkan tidak ada pulsasi sehingga tidak ada getaran yang ditimbulkan dan sangat cocok untuk mengalirkan gas pada pipa-pipa yang panjang. vane dan screw compressor ini biasanya digunakan sebagai vapor recovery unit atau vacuum pumps.  

  • Kinetic Compressor

Compresor jenis ini menggunakan energi kecepatan untuk memindahkan fluida kerjanya. untuk meningkatkan energi pada fluida kerja, kinetic compressor menggunakan impeller dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi (20.000 hingga 30.000 rpm). Contoh dari kinetic compressor ini adalah centrifugal dan axial compressor. Centrifugal compressor cocok sekali digunakan di daerah offshore pada pengeboran sumur gas karena easily automated for remote operations dan juga biasanya digunakan pada turbin gas. Kelebihan dari centrifugal compressor ini adalah low maintenance dan low operating cost, tetapi kekurangannya memiliki efficiency yang rendah. 

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